Synmeの地政学がくしゅう帳

地政学でクールにザックリ日本の外交・軍事を学ぶ

ニッポンの開国14:1854ペリー再来航(黒船9隻)、日米和親条約

ニッポンの開国というかニッポンの国際外交への復帰の過程をいっきに学び直す日本史 近代・現代 実用編で学ぶ。今回はペリーが黒船の数を増やして再来航。江戸幕府将軍の死という好機を捉え、1年後の再訪という約束をあっさり反故にして威圧的な交渉を仕掛けた。最初に事実だけ。

1854年[US078]2月ペリーが黒船9隻(Pawhatan、Susquehannna、Mississippi、Saratoga、Macedonian、Vandalia、Southampton、Lexington、Supply )で再度浦賀に来航した。3月には日米和親条約(通称:神奈川条約)を締結し、ニッポンは下田と箱館(函館)を開港し、アメリカに最恵国待遇を与えた。

f:id:synme:20180816233904j:plain

1854年[US078]2月13日ペリーはふたたび浦賀に来航した。1年間の猶予を与えるはずであったが、香港で徳川家慶江戸幕府第12代征夷大将軍)の死を知り、幕府の混乱の隙を突こうと考えたそうだ。

「約束の通り半年後に来てくれ」と言えばいいのに、とSynmeは思うのだが...

何はともあれ、押し切られた江戸幕府とペリーは3月30日日米和親条約(Convention of Peace and Amity between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan、通称Treaty of Kanagawa、1854年[US078]3月30日)を締結した。

 

条約の内容は以下の通り、第2条にある下田の即時開港および箱館(函館)の翌1855年[US079]3月開港と第9条の最恵国待遇が重要な内容である。

亞墨利加合衆國と帝國日本兩國の人民誠實不朽の親睦を取り結ひ兩國人民の交親を旨とし向後可守箇條相立候ため合衆國より全權マッゼウ、カルブレズ、ペルリ(人名)を日本に差越し日本君主よりは全權林大學頭井戶對馬守伊澤美作守鵜殿民部少輔を差遣し勅諭を信して雙方左の通取極候
The United States of America, and the Empire of Japan, desiring to establish firm, lasting and sincere friendship between the two Nations, have resolved to fix in a manner clear and positive, by means of  a Treaty or general convention of peace and Amity, the rules which shall in future be mutually observed in the intercourse of their respective Countries; for which most desirable object, the President of the United States has conferred full powers on his Commissioner, Matthew  Calbraith Perry, Special Ambassador of  the United States to  Japan:  And the August Sovereign of Japan, has given similar full powers to his  Commissioners, Hayashi, Dai_gaku no_kami;  Ido, Prince  of  Tsus_sima;  Izawa, Prince of Mima_saki;  and Udono, Member  of  the Board  of  Revenue. And the said Commissioners after having exchanged their said  full powers, and  duly considered the premises, have agreed to the following Articles.

第一條 日本と合衆國とは其人民永世不朽の和親を取結ひ場所人柄の差別無之事
Article I.There shall be a perfect, permanent, and universal peace, and a sincere and cordial amity between the United States of America, on the one part, and the Empire of Japan on the other part; and between their people respectively, without exception of persons or places.

第二條 伊豆下田松前箱館の兩港は日本政府に於て亞墨利加船薪水食料石炭欠乏の品を日本人にて調候丈は給し候爲め渡來の儀差免し候下田港は約條書面調印の上即時にも相開き箱館は來年三月より相始候事
Article II.The Port of Simoda in the principality of Idzu, and the Port of Hakodade, in the principality of Matsmai, are granted by the Japanese as ports for the reception of American Ships, where they can be supplied with Wood, Water, provisions, and Coal, and other Articles their necessities may require as far as the Japanese have them. The time for opening the first named Port is immediately on signing this Treaty; the last named Port is to be opened immediately after the same day in the ensuing Japanese Year.
Note A tariff of prices shall be given by the Japanese Officers of the things which they can furnish, payment for which shall be made in Gold and Silver Coin.

第三條 合衆國の船日本海濱漂着の時扶助致し其漂民を下田又は箱館に護送致し本國の者受取可申所持の品物も同樣に可致候尤漂民諸雜費は兩國互に同樣の事故不及償候事
Article III.Whenever Ships of the United States are thrown or wrecked on the Coast of Japan, the Japanese vessels will assist them, and carry their Crews to Simoda, or Hakodade, and hand them over to their Countrymen appointed to receive them; whatever Articles the ship wrecked men may have preserved shall likewise be restored, and the expenses incurred in the rescue and support of Americans and Japanese who may thus be thrown upon the shores of either nation are not to be refunded.

第四條 漂着或は渡來の人民取扱の儀は他國同樣緩優に有之閉籠候儀致間敷乍併正直の法度には伏從致し候事
Article IV.
Those Shipwrecked persons and other Citizens of the United States shall be free as in other Countries, and not subjected to confinement, but shall be amenable to just laws.

第五條 合衆國の漂民其他の者共當分下田箱館逗留中長崎に於て唐和蘭人同樣閉籠窮屈の取扱無之下田港内の小島周り凡七里の内は勝手に徘徊いたし箱館港の儀は追て取極候事
Article V.
Shipwrecked men and other Citizens of the United States, temporarily living at Simoda and Hakodade shall not be subject to such restrictions and confinement as the Dutch and Chinese are at Nagasaki, but shall be free at Simoda to go where they please within the limits of Seven Japanese miles (or Ri.) from a small Island in the harbor of Simoda, marked on the accompanying Chart, hereto appended : and shall in like manner be free to go where they please at Hakodade, within limits to be defined after the visit of the United States Squadron to that place.

第六條 必用の品物其外可相叶事は雙方談判の上取極候事
Article VI.
If there be any other sort of goods wanted, or any business which shall require to be arranged, there shall be careful deliberation between the parties in order to settle such matters.

第七條 合衆國の船右兩港に渡來の時金銀錢並品物を以て入用の品相調候を差免し候尤日本政府の規定に相從可申且合衆國の船より差出候品物を日本人不好して差返候時は受取可申事
Article VII.It is agreed that Ships of the United States resorting to the ports open to them, shall be permitted to exchange Gold and Silver Coin and articles of Goods for other articles of goods, under such regulations as shall be temporarily established by the Japanese Government for that purpose. It is stipulated however that the Ships of the United States shall be permitted to carry away whatever articles they are unwilling to exchange.

第八條 薪水食料石炭並缺乏の品求る時には其地の役人にて取扱すへく私に取引すへからさる事
Article VIII.Wood, Water, provisions, Coal and Goods required shall only be procured through the agency of Japanese Officers appointed for that purpose, and in no other manner.

第九條 日本政府外國人へ當節亞墨利加人へ不差免候廉相免し候節は亞墨利加人へも同樣差許可申右に付談判猶豫不致候事
Article IX.It is agreed, that if at any future day the government of Japan shall grant to any other Nation or Nations privileges and advantages which are not herein granted to the United States, and the Citizens thereof, that these same privileges and advantages shall be granted likewise to the United States, and to the Citizens thereof, without any consultation or deley.

第十條 合衆國の船若し難風に逢さる時は下田箱館兩港の外猥に渡來不致候事
Article X. Ships of the United States shall be permitted to resort to no other ports in Japan but Simoda and Hakodade unless in distress or forced by stress of weather.

第十一條 兩國政府に於て無據儀有之候時は模樣に寄り合衆國官吏の者下田に差置候儀も可有之尤約定調印より十八箇月後に無之候ては不及其儀候事
Article XI.There shall be appointed by the Government of the United States, Consuls or Agents to reside in Simoda at any time after the expiration of Eighteen months from the date of the signing of this Treaty, provided that either of the two governments deem such arrangement necessary.

第十二條 今般の約定相定候上は兩國者の堅く相守可申尤合衆國主に於て長公會大臣と評議一定の後書を日本大君に致し此事今より後十八箇月を過きすして君主許容の約定取扱せ候事
右の條日本亞墨利加兩國の全權調印せしむる者也
Article XII.The present Convention having been concluded and duly signed, shall be obligatory and faithfully observed by the United States of America and Japan, and by the Citizens and Subjects of each respective power; and it is to be ratified and approved by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the August Sovereign of Japan, and the ratification shall be exchanged within eighteen months from the date of the signature thereof, or sooner if practicable.
In faith whereof, we the respective plenipotentiaries of the United States of America and the Empire of Japan aforesaid have signed and sealed these presents.

嘉 永 七 年 三 月 三 日 
千八百五十四年三月三十日
Done at Kanagawa this thirty first day of March in the Year of our Lord Jesus Christ, One thousand eight hundred and fifty four; and of Kayei the Seventh Year, third month and Third‐day. 

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文責:鵄士縦七